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Insomnium - While We SleepÜbersetzung im Kontext von „we sleep“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: Normally we process our experiences, while we sleep. Übersetzung im Kontext von „even while we sleep“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: Our ears "listen" even while we sleep; they are permanently. Hör dir While We Sleep - Single von Insomnium auf Apple Music an. Streame Titel, unter anderem „While We Sleep“.
While We Sleep VideoInsomnium- While we sleep with lyrics
Only during sleep can spinal fluid slosh like detergent through these broader hallways of our brain, washing beta-amyloid away.
Michael Bosak sleeps through his exam in a position that helps prevent the repeated narrowing of the upper airway—the cause of his snoring.
This photo was taken in the dark with an infrared camera so as not to disturb him. While all this housekeeping and repair occurs, our muscles are fully relaxed.
Mental activity is minimal: Stage 4 waves are similar to patterns produced by coma patients. We do not typically dream during stage 4; we may not even be able to feel pain.
In Greek mythology the gods Hypnos sleep and Thanatos death are twin brothers. The Greeks may have been right.
At most, we can remain in stage 4 for only about 30 minutes before the brain kicks itself out. In sleepwalkers at least, that shift can be accompanied by a bodily jerk.
We often sail straight through stages 3, 2, and 1 into awakeness. We drop back to sleep in a matter of seconds.
But at this point, rather than repeating the stages again, the brain resets itself for something entirely new—a trip into the truly bizarre.
Cortisol is synthesized by the adrenal gland , above the kidneys. Some blind people who have no light information reaching their brains use melatonin products every 24 hours as cues to try to stay in sync.
The clock can be set backward or forward by light. Some ganglion cells have blue-light-sensitive receptors that tell our brain to set our circadian clock to night or day.
They also gather subtle light information from rods and cones. David Sliney, Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health; Michael Perlis; f.
According to the U. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, more than 80 million American adults are chronically sleep deprived, meaning they sleep less than the recommended minimum of seven hours a night.
Fatigue contributes to more than a million auto accidents each year, as well as to a significant number of medical errors. Even small adjustments in sleep can be problematic.
The Monday after a daylight saving time change in the U. During our lifetimes, about a third of us will suffer from at least one diagnosable sleep disorder.
They range from chronic insomnia to sleep apnea to restless leg syndrome to much rarer and stranger conditions. In exploding head syndrome, booming sounds seem to reverberate in your brain as you try to sleep.
People with Kleine-Levin syndrome will, every few years, sleep nearly nonstop for a week or two. They return to regular cycles of consciousness without any discernible side effects.
Insomnia is by far the most common problem, the main reason 4 percent of U. Insomniacs generally take longer to fall asleep, wake up for prolonged periods during the night, or both.
If sleep is such a ubiquitous natural phenomenon, refined across the eons, you might wonder, why do so many of us have such trouble with it?
Blame evolution; blame the modern world. Or blame the mismatch between the two. The war on sleep began when incandescent bulbs first made it easy to banish night.
Big cities such as Tokyo are now often illuminated with LED bulbs. To get a clear view of how humans are changing the night sky, NASA has created composite satellite images of the entire Earth at night.
The results, updated regularly, provide the best picture yet of the evolving pattern of human settlement—and of our relentless drive to light up the night.
Evolution endowed us, like other creatures, with sleep that is malleable in its timing and readily interruptible, so it can be subordinated to higher priorities.
The brain has an override system, operating in all stages of sleep, that can rouse us when it perceives an emergency—the cry of a child, say, or the footfall of an approaching predator.
The problem is that in the modern world, our ancient, innate wake-up call is constantly triggered by non—life-threatening situations, like anxiety before an exam, worries about finances, or every car alarm in the neighborhood.
Before the industrial revolution, which brought us alarm clocks and fixed work schedules, we could often counteract insomnia simply by sleeping in.
No longer. Underslept people are more irritable, moody, and irrational. Anyone who regularly sleeps less than six hours a night has an elevated risk of depression, psychosis, and stroke.
Lack of sleep is also directly tied to obesity: Without enough sleep, the stomach and other organs overproduce ghrelin, the hunger hormone, causing us to eat more than we need.
Not a refugee or a homeless shelter—at the Philharmonie de Paris, these couples sleep soundly while composer Max Richter leads a performance next photo of Sleep, a minimalist, scientifically informed piece that aims to guide listeners through a rejuvenating rest.
It lasts eight hours. Ellenbogen and other experts argue against shortcuts, especially the original one—the notion that we can mostly do without sleep.
Some thought we might not need it at all. That period turns out, instead, to be the wellspring of a completely separate but just as essential form of sleep, practically another type of consciousness altogether.
Rapid eye movement, or REM, sleep was discovered in —more than 15 years after stages 1 through 4 had been mapped—by Eugene Aserinsky and Nathaniel Kleitman at the University of Chicago.
Before then, because of its unremarkable pattern on early EEGs, this period was usually thought of as a variant form of stage 1, and not particularly significant.
But once the distinctive eye darting was documented, and the engorgement of sexual organs that always goes with it, and it was understood that virtually all vivid dreaming takes place in this phase, the science of sleep was upended.
Generally, a healthy sleep begins with a spiral down to stage 4, a momentary return to wakefulness, and a five- to minute REM session.
With each ensuing cycle, REM time roughly doubles. Overall, REM sleep occupies about one-fifth of total rest time in adults.
Sleep scientists speculate that specific sequences of NREM and REM sleep somehow optimize our physical and mental recuperation.
At the cellular level, protein synthesis peaks during REM sleep, keeping the body working properly. REM sleep also seems essential for regulating mood and consolidating memories.
Every time we experience REM sleep, we literally go mad. By definition, psychosis is a condition characterized by hallucinations and delusions.
Dreaming, some sleep scientists say, is a psychotic state—we fully believe that we see what is not there, and we accept that time, location, and people themselves can morph and disappear without warning.
From ancient Greeks to Sigmund Freud to back-alley fortune-tellers, dreams have always been a source of enchantment and mystery—interpreted as messages from the gods or our unconscious.
They believe that dreams result from the chaotic firing of neurons and, even if imbued with emotional resonance, are devoid of significance.
Other sleep scientists strongly disagree. Even if you never recall a single image, you still dream. Everyone does. Lack of dream recollection is actually an indication of a healthy sleeper.
Dreams also occur in NREM sleep, especially stage 2, but these are generally thought to be more like overtures. Only in REM sleep do we encounter the full potent force of our nighttime madness.
Dreams, often falsely said to be just momentary flashes, are instead thought to span almost all of REM sleep, typically about two hours per night, though this decreases as we age—perhaps because our less pliant brains are not learning as much while awake and have fewer new memories to process as we sleep.
Newborn infants sleep up to 17 hours a day and spend about half of that in an active, REM-like condition.
And for about a month in the womb, starting at week 26 of gestation, it seems that fetuses remain without pause in a state very similar to REM sleep.
All this REM time, it has been theorized, is the equivalent of the brain testing its software, preparing to come fully on line.
The process is called telencephalization. We are truly out cold. Our heart rate increases compared with other sleep stages, and our breathing is irregular.
Our muscles, with a few exceptions—eyes, ears, heart, diaphragm—are immobilized. Belief in the unbelievable happens because in REM sleep, stewardship of the brain is transferred away from the logic centers and impulse-control regions.
Production of two specific chemicals, serotonin and norepinephrine, is completely shut off. REM sleep is ruled by the limbic system—a deep-brain region, the untamed jungle of the mind, where some of our most savage and base instincts arise.
Freud was right, in effect, that dreams do tap our primitive emotions. The limbic system is home to our sex drive, aggression, and fear, though it also allows us to feel elation and joy and love.
Frightening dreams are simply more likely to trigger our override system and wake us. Down in the brain stem, a little bulge called the pons is supercharged during REM sleep.
Electrical pulses from the pons often target the part of the brain that controls muscles in the eyes and ears. Our lids usually remain shut, but our eyeballs bounce from side to side, possibly in response to the intensity of the dream.
Our inner ears too are active while we dream. A Centers for Disease Control and Prevention study found that older Americans are more likely to use prescription sleep aids than their younger counterparts.
Women were also slightly more likely than men to report they used sleep aids. A Rand study found that lack of sleep can result in reduced productivity as well as more work absences, industrial and road accidents, health care expenses, and medical errors.
Sources: U. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; bCc research; rand EUROPE. The ultimate virtual-reality machine resides inside our head.
Above, Mike Morris, an Army veteran of two tours in Iraq, is part of a study by Jeffrey Ellenbogen of Johns Hopkins University at right that explores how companionship and the sounds a sleeper is exposed to affect recovery from trauma.
Below, he wears an EEG cap as he sleeps with his therapy dog, Olive. When you dream, your brain is actually trying to produce movements, but a system in the brain stem completely shuts down the motor-neuron gate.
This often results in injuries to the sleeper and his or her bedmate. The end of a REM session, like the end of stage 4, is usually marked with a brief awakening.
If we rest naturally, without an alarm clock, our last dream of the night often concludes our sleep. When light seeps through our eyelids and touches our retinas, a signal is sent to a deep-brain region called the suprachiasmatic nucleus.
This is the time, for many of us, that our last dream dissolves, we open our eyes, and we rejoin our real life. Or do we? Perhaps the most remarkable thing about REM sleep is that it proves the brain can operate independently of sensory input.
Like an artist ensconced in a secret studio, our mind appears to experiment without inhibition, let loose on its own personal mission. The money-earning, the child-rearing.
It self-activates. It dreams. This, one could say, is the playtime of the brain. Some sleep theorists postulate that REM sleep is when we are our most intelligent, insightful, creative, and free.
And the answer might be that we need to attend to the basics of life—the eating and mating and fighting—only to ensure that the body is fully ready for sleep.
While embedded with U. Our floodlit society has made sleep deprivation a lifestyle. But we know more than ever about how we rest—and how it keeps us healthy.
Read Caption. Joe Diemand, 76, has spent the past 20 years as a truck driver, sometimes driving all night.
By Michael Finkel. Photographs by Magnus Wennman. This story appears in the August issue of National Geographic magazine. Nearly every night of our lives, we undergo a startling metamorphosis.
Sleep is seen as interrupting life, but the real scourge is chronic sleeplessness. In Japan about 40 percent of the population sleeps less than six hours a night.
At night, that is, we switch from recording to editing, a change that can be measured on the molecular scale. Sleep reinforces our memory so powerfully—not just in stage 2, where we spend about half our sleeping time, but throughout the looping voyage of the night—that it might be best, for example, if exhausted soldiers returning from harrowing missions did not go directly to bed.
To forestall post-traumatic stress disorder, the soldiers should remain awake for six to eight hours, according to neuroscientist Gina Poe at the University of California, Los Angeles.
Research by her and others suggests that sleeping soon after a major event, before some of the ordeal is mentally resolved, is more likely to turn the experience into long-term memories.
What CLAIM is the author making about the importance of Stage 2 sleep? What EVIDENCE is provided? What REASONING connects the evidence to the claim?This is supported by many important processes that happen during sleep, including:. Frequently Asked Questions This FAQ is empty. Deep sleep is restorative. Research suggests that sleep contributes to memory function by converting short-term memories into long-term memories, as well as by erasing, or forgetting, unneeded information Positive News might otherwise clutter the nervous system.